Many topics in Chemical Engineering ask for structural information. Examples how such information can be achieved are shown here: In Quartz SiO2 units are linked together in highly ordered patterns whereas this is not the case for simple silicates. The polymerization of SiO2 units can be resolved at Si K-edge.Polimerization in Silicates: Si K-edge XANES shows an edge shift with increasing chain length.
Figure 1: The polymerization of SiO2 units can be resolved at Si K-edge
Figure 2: Overview of Silicate polymers(from website)
Fig. 3 shows the processes at the sulfur crosslinks of vulcanized rubber during thermo-oxidative aging at sulfur K-edge using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES).
Figure 3: Vulcanization of Rubber: Thermo-oxidative aging - at S K-edge.