Social Inequality | LSU Sociology

Social Inequality

A central tenet to the discipline of sociology. Social inequality involves building an understanding of the structure, causes, and consequences of the unequal distribution of material and symbolic rewards in society. The faculty at LSU examine social inequality as it applies to topics including education, gender and sexuality, aging populations and geronotology, globalization and development, inequality broadly, health and well-being including mental health, marriage and family, poverty, race and ethnicity, religiosity, social demography and population change, and work and labor markets.



Becker, S. (2010). Badder than “Just a bunch of SPEDs”: Alternative schooling and student resistance to special education rhetoric. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 39(1), 60-86.

Becker, S., & Paul, C. (2015). It Didn’t Seem Like Race Mattered” Exploring the Implications of Service-learning Pedagogy for Reproducing or Challenging Color-blind Racism. Teaching Sociology, 43(3), 184-200.

Fasching-Varner, K. J., Mitchell, R. W., Martin, L. L., & Bennett-Haron, K. P. (2014). Beyond school-to-prison pipeline and toward an educational and penal realism. Equity & Excellence in Education, 47(4), 410-429.

Garnier, M., & Schafer, M. (2006). Educational model and expansion of enrollments in sub-Saharan Africa. Sociology of Education, 79(2), 153-176.

Green, D., Pulley, T., Jackson, M., Martin, L. L., & Fasching-Varner, K. J. (2018). Mapping the margins and searching for higher ground: examining the marginalisation of black female graduate students at PWIs. Gender and Education, 30(3), 295-309.

Kaskie, B., Walker, M., & Andersson, M. (2017). Efforts to Address the Aging Academic Workforce: Assessing Progress Through a Three-Stage Model of Institutional Change. Innovative Higher Education, 42(3), 225-237.

Kroeger, R. A., Frank, R., & Schmeer, K. K. (2015). Educational attainment and timing to first union across three generations of mexican women. Population Research and Policy Review, 34(3), 417-435.

Manohar, N. N., Berkowitz, D., Wilder, J., & Tinkler, J. E. (2013). Photovoice: A Critical Pedagogical Assignment in the Sociology Classroom. Currents in Teaching & Learning, 5(1&2), 36-51.

Martin, L. L., & Varner, K. J. (2017). Race, residential segregation, and the death of democracy: Education and myth of postracialism. Democracy and Education, 25(1), 1-10.

Reece, R. L., & O’Connell, H. A. (2016). How the legacy of slavery and racial composition shape public school enrollment in the American South. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 2(1), 42-57.

Schafer, M. J., & Hori, M. (2006). The spatial dynamics of high school dropout: The case of rural Louisiana. Southern Rural Sociology, 21(1), 55-79.

Schafer, M. J., & Khan, S. S. (2017). Family economy, rural school choice, and flexischooling children with disabilities. Rural Sociology, 82(3), 524-547.

Shrum, W., & Cheek Jr, N. H. (1987). Social structure during the school years: Onset of the degrouping process. American Sociological Review, 218-223.

Shrum, W., Cheek Jr, N. H., & MacD, S. (1988). Friendship in school: Gender and racial homophily. Sociology of Education, 227-239.

Ynalvez, M. A., & Shrum, W. M. (2009). International graduate science training and scientific collaboration. International Sociology, 24(6), 870-901.


Gender & Sexuality

Becker, S., Thomas, D., & Cope, M. R. (2016). Post-feminism for children: Feminism ‘repackaged’in the Bratz films. Media, Culture & Society, 38(8), 1218-1235.

Berkowitz, D. (2008). A sociohistorical analysis of gay men's procreative consciousness. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 3(2-3), 157-190.

Berkowitz, D. (2009). Theorizing lesbian and gay parenting: Past, present, and future scholarship. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 1(3), 117-132.

Berkowitz, D., Belgrave, L., & Halberstein, R. A. (2007). The interaction of drag queens and gay men in public and private spaces. Journal of Homosexuality, 52(3-4), 11-32.

Berkowitz, D., & Liska Belgrave, L. (2010). “She works hard for the money”: Drag queens and the management of their contradictory status of celebrity and marginality. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 39(2), 159-186.

Berkowitz, D., Manohar, N. N., & Tinkler, J. E. (2010). Walk like a man, talk like a woman: Teaching the social construction of gender. Teaching Sociology, 38(2), 132-143.

Berkowitz, D., & Marsiglio, W. (2007). Gay men: Negotiating procreative, father, and family identities. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69(2), 366-381.

Berkowitz, D., & Ryan, M. (2011). Bathrooms, baseball, and bra shopping: Lesbian and gay parents talk about engendering their children. Sociological Perspectives, 54(3), 329-350.

Campion, P., & Shrum, W. (2004). Gender and science in development: Women scientists in Ghana, Kenya, and India. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 29(4), 459-485.

Paige Miller, B., Sooryamoorthy, R., Anderson, M., Palackal, A., & Shrum, W. (2006). Gender and science in developing areas: Has the internet reduced inequality? Social Science Quarterly, 87(3), 679-689.

Ryan, M., & Berkowitz, D. (2009). Constructing gay and lesbian parent families “beyond the closet”. Qualitative Sociology, 32(2), 153-172.

Shrum, W., & Kilburn, J. (1996). Ritual disrobement at Mardi Gras: ceremonial exchange and moral order. Social Forces, 75(2), 423-458.

Umberson, D., & Kroeger, R. A. (2016). Gender, marriage, and health for same-sex and different-sex couples: The future keeps arriving. In Gender and couple relationships (pp. 189-213). Springer, Cham.

Umberson, D., Thomeer, M. B., Kroeger, R. A., Lodge, A. C., & Xu, M. (2015). Challenges and opportunities for research on same‐sex relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(1), 96-111.



Andersson, M. A., Walker, M. H., & Kaskie, B. P. (2017). Strapped for Time or Stressed Out? Predictors of Work Interruption and Unmet Need for Workplace Support Among Informal Elder Caregivers. Journal of Aging and Health, DOI: 10.1177/0898264317744920.

Henderson, T. L., Roberto, K. A., & Kamo, Y. (2010). Older adults’ responses to Hurricane Katrina: daily hassles and coping strategies. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 29(1), 48-69.

Kamo, Y. (1988). A note on elderly living arrangements in Japan and the United States. Research on Aging, 10(2), 297-305.

Kamo, Y., Henderson, T. L., Roberto, K. A., Peabody, K. L., & White, J. K. (2015). Perceptions of older adults in a community accepting displaced survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Current Psychology, 34(3), 551-563.

Kamo, Y., & Zhou, M. (1994). Living arrangements of elderly Chinese and Japanese in the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56(3), 544-558.

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2008). Employment hardship among older workers: does residential and gender inequality extend into older age? The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 63(1), S15-S24.

Stroope, S., Cohen, I. F. A., Tom, J. C., Franzen, A. B., Valasik, M. & Markides, K. S. (2017). Neighborhood Perception and Self-Rated Health among Mexican American Elders. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 17(12), 2559-2564.

Stroope, S., McFarland, M. J., & Uecker, J. E. (2015). Marital characteristics and the sexual relationships of US older adults: an analysis of national social life, health, and aging project data. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(1), 233-247.


Globalization & Development

Bradshaw, Y. W., & Schafer, M. J. (2000). Urbanization and development: The emergence of international nongovernmental organizations amid declining states. Sociological Perspectives, 43(1), 97-116.

Campion, P., & Shrum, W. (2002). Environmental attitudes of scientists in Ghana, Kenya, and Kerala: Evidence on NGOs and traditional research sectors. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 37(1), 17-42.

Duque, R. B., Shrum, W. M., Barriga, O., & Henríquez, G. (2009). Internet practice and professional networks in Chilean science: Dependency or progress? Scientometrics, 81(1), 239-263.

Harsh, M., Mbatia, P., & Shrum, W. (2010). Accountability and inaction: NGOs and resource lodging in development. Development and Change, 41(2), 253-278.

Schafer, M. J. (1999). International nongovernmental organizations and Third World education in 1990: A cross-national study. Sociology of Education, 72(2), 69-88.

Schafer, M. J. (2005). Family contributions to self help schooling in Malawi and Kenya. Rural Sociology, 70(1), 70-93.

Schafer, M. J. (2006). Household change and rural school enrollment in Malawi and Kenya. The Sociological Quarterly, 47(4), 665-691.

Schafer, M. J., Shrum, W. M., Miller, B. P., Mbatia, P. N., Palackal, A., & Dzorgbo, D. B. S. (2016). Access to ICT and research output of agriculture researchers in Kenya. Science, Technology and Society, 21(2), 250-270.

Shrum, W. (2000). Science and story in development: The emergence of non-governmental organizations in agricultural research. Social Studies of Science, 30(1), 95-124.

Shrum, W., Palackal, A., Dzorgbo, D. B. S., Mbatia, P., Schafer, M., Miller, P., & Rackin, H. (2017). Has the Internet Reduced Friendship? Scientific Relationships in Ghana, Kenya, and India, 1994-2010. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 42(3), 491-519.

Sooryamoorthy, R., & Shrum, W. (2007). Does the internet promote collaboration and productivity? Evidence from the scientific community in South Africa. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(2), 733-751.



Blanchard, T. C., & Matthews, T. L. (2007). Retail concentration, food deserts, and food-disadvantaged communities in rural America. In Remaking the North American food system: Strategies for sustainability (pp. 201-215). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Curtis, K. J., & O’Connell, H. A. (2017). Historical Racial Contexts and Contemporary Spatial Differences in Racial Inequality. Spatial Demography, 5(2), 73-97.

Lin, Y. F., Kamo, Y., & Slack, T. (2018). Is It the Government’s Responsibility to Reduce Income Inequality? An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Public Opinion toward Redistributive Policy in the United States, 1978 to 2016. Sociological Spectrum, 38(3), 162-173.

Martin, L. L. (2014). Low-Wage Workers and the Myth of Post-Racialism. Loy. J. Pub. Int. L., 16, 405.

Morton, L. W., & Blanchard, T. C. (2007). Starved for access: life in rural America’s food deserts. Rural Realities, 1(4), 1-10.

O'Connell, H. A. (2012). The impact of slavery on racial inequality in poverty in the contemporary US South. Social Forces, 90(3), 713-734.

O’Connell, H. A. (2018). Historical Shadows: The Links between Sundown Towns and Contemporary Black–White Inequality. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 2332649218761979.


Health & Well-being

Berkowitz, D. (2017). Botox nation: Changing the face of America. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Buffington, A., McKee, C., Ragsdale, K., Blanchard, T. C., Baggett, D., & Southward, L. H. (2014). Impact of Mississippi Healthy Students Act of 2007 on District‐and School‐Level Health Policies: School Officials' Perspectives. Journal of School Health, 84(5), 285-293.

Cope, M. R., & Slack, T. (2017). Emplaced social vulnerability to technological disasters: Southeast Louisiana and the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Population and Environment, 38(3), 217-241.

Cossman, J. S., Cossman, R. E., James, W. L., Campbell, C. R., Blanchard, T. C., & Cosby, A. G. (2007). Persistent clusters of mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 97(12), 2148-2150.

Cossman, R. E., Cossman, J. S., James, W. L., Blanchard, T., Thomas, R., Pol, L. G., & Cosby, A. G. (2010). Correlating pharmaceutical data with a national health survey as a proxy for estimating rural population health. Population Health Metrics, 8(1), 25.

Cossman, R. E., Cossman, J. S., James, W. L., Blanchard, T., Thomas, R. K., Pol, L. G., COSBY, A. G. & Mirvis, D. M. (2008). Evaluating heart disease prescriptions-filled as a proxy for heart disease prevalence rates. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 503-528.

Ferguson, T. W., Andercheck, B., Tom, J. C., Martinez, B. C., & Stroope, S. (2015). Occupational conditions, self-care, and obesity among clergy in the United States. Social Science Research, 49, 249-263.

Lynn, F. B., Simpson, B., Walker, M. H., & Peterson, C. (2016). Why is the Pack Persuasive? The Effect of Choice Status on Perceptions of Quality. Sociological Science, 3: 239-263.

Guan, W., & Kamo, Y. (2016). Contextualizing depressive contagion: A multilevel network approach. Society and Mental Health, 6(2), 129-145.

Gupta, R. S., Pascoe, J. M., Blanchard, T. C., Langkamp, D., Duncan, P. M., Gorski, P. A., & Southward, L. H. (2009). Child health in child care: A multi-state survey of Head Start and non–Head Start child care directors. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 23(3), 143-149.

Jordan, M. M., Berkowitz, D., Hannold, E., Velozo, C. A., & Behrman, A. L. (2013). Thinking through every step: how people with spinal cord injuries relearn to walk. Qualitative Health Research, 23(8), 1027-1041.

O'Connell, H. A. (2015). Where there's smoke: Cigarette use, social acceptability, and spatial approaches to multilevel modeling. Social Science & Medicine, 140, 18-26.

Perry, A. M., & Schafer, M. J. (2014). Resilience in Louisiana FEMA parks: A person-centered, fuzzy-set analysis. Sociological Spectrum, 34(1), 39-60.

Rackin, H. M., & Brasher, M. S. (2016). Is Baby a Blessing? Wantedness, Age at First Birth, and Later‐Life Depression. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(5), 1269-1284.

Riosmena, F., Frank, R., Akresh, I. R., & Kroeger, R. A. (2012). US migration, translocality, and the acceleration of the nutrition transition in Mexico. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102(5), 1209-1218.

Singelmann, J., & Schafer, M. (2010). Dislocation and depression: Social consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Society and Natural Resources, 23(10), 919-934.

Slack, T., Myers, C. A., Martin, C. K., & Heymsfield, S. B. (2014). The geographic concentration of US adult obesity prevalence and associated social, economic, and environmental factors. Obesity, 22(3), 868-874.

Stroope, S. (2015). Disease and dowry: Community context, gender, and adult health in India. Social Forces, 93(4), 1599-1623.

Stroope, S., & Baker, J. O. (2018). Whose Moral Community? Religiosity, Secularity, and Self-rated Health across Communal Religious Contexts. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 59(2), 185-199.

Stroope, S., Rackin, H. M., Stroope, J. L., & Uecker, J. E. (2018). Breastfeeding and the Role of Maternal Religion: Results From a National Prospective Cohort Study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 52(4), 319-330.

Umberson, D., Thomeer, M. B., Kroeger, R. A., Reczek, C., & Donnelly, R. (2016). Instrumental-and emotion-focused care work during physical health events: Comparing gay, lesbian, and heterosexual marriages. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 72(3), 498-509.


Marriage & Family

Chandler, T. D., Kamo, Y., & Werbel, J. D. (1994). Do delays in marriage and childbirth affect earnings?. Social Science Quarterly, 75(4), 838-53.

Donnelly, R., Umberson, D., & Kroeger, R. A. (2018). Childhood adversity, daily stress, and marital strain in same-sex and different-sex marriages. Journal of Family Issues, 39(7), 2085-2106.

Gibson‐Davis, C., & Rackin, H. (2014). Marriage or carriage? Trends in union context and birth type by education. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(3), 506-519.

Kamo, Y. (1988). Determinants of household division of labor: Resources, power, and ideology. Journal of Family Issues, 9(2), 177-200.

Kamo, Y. (1994). Division of household work in the United States and Japan. Journal of Family Issues, 15(3), 348-378.

Kamo, Y. (2000). “He said, she said”: Assessing discrepancies in husbands' and wives' reports on the division of household labor. Social Science Research, 29(4), 459-476.

Kamo, Y. (2000). Racial and ethnic differences in extended family households. Sociological Perspectives, 43(2), 211-229.

Kroeger, R. A., & Williams, K. (2011). Consequences of black exceptionalism? Interracial unions with blacks, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction. The Sociological Quarterly, 52(3), 400-420.

Martinez, B. C., Tom, J. C., Ferguson, T. W., Andercheck, B., & Stroope, S. (2018). Parenting Practices and Attitudes and the Role of Belief in Supernatural Evil: Results From a National US Survey. Journal of Family Issues, 39(6), 1616-1638.

Morgan, S. P., & Rackin, H. (2010). The correspondence between fertility intentions and behavior in the United States. Population and Development Review, 36(1), 91-118.

Morgan, S. P., & Rackin, H. (2010). A half century of fertility change. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 515-535.

Rackin, H. M., & Bachrach, C. A. (2016). Assessing the predictive value of fertility expectations through a cognitive–social model. Population Research and Policy Review, 35(4), 527-551.

Rackin, H., & Gibson‐Davis, C. M. (2012). The role of pre‐and postconception relationships for first‐time parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(3), 526-539.

Rackin, H. M., & Gibson‐Davis, C. M. (2017). Low‐Income Childless Young Adults' Marriage and Fertility Frameworks. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79(4), 1096-1110.

Rackin, H. M., & Gibson‐Davis, C. M. (2018). Social Class Divergence in Family Transitions: The Importance of Cohabitation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(5), 1271-1286.

Rackin, H., & Morgan, S. P. (2018). Prospective versus retrospective measurement of unwanted fertility: Strengths, weaknesses, and inconsistencies assessed for a cohort of US women. Demographic Research, 39, 61-94.

Schmeer, K. K., & Kroeger, R. A. (2011). Union type and depressive symptoms among Mexican adults. Journal of Family Issues, 32(12), 1597-1621.

Shihadeh, E. S. (1991). The prevalence of husband-centered migration: employment consequences for married mothers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 432-444.

Thiede, B. C., Kim, H., & Slack, T. (2017). Marriage, work, and racial inequalities in poverty: Evidence from the United States. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79(5), 1241-1257.



Curtis, K. J., Reyes, P. E., O’Connell, H. A., & Zhu, J. (2013). Assessing the spatial concentration and temporal persistence of poverty: Industrial structure, racial/ethnic composition, and the complex links to poverty. Spatial Demography, 1(2), 178-194.

Jensen, L., & Slack, T. (2003). Underemployment in America: Measurement and evidence. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1-2), 21-31.

O’Connell, H. A., & Shoff, C. (2014). Spatial variation in the relationship between hispanic concentration and county poverty: A migration perspective. Spatial Demography, 2(1), 30-54.

Slack, T. (2010). Working Poverty across the Metro‐Nonmetro Divide: A Quarter Century in Perspective, 1979–2003. Rural Sociology, 75(3), 363-387.

Slack, T., & Myers, C. A. (2012). Understanding the geography of food stamp program participation: Do space and place matter? Social Science Research, 41(2), 263-275.

Slack, T., Singelmann, J., Fontenot, K., Poston Jr, D. L., Saenz, R., & Siordia, C. (2009). Poverty in the Texas borderland and lower Mississippi delta: A comparative analysis of differences by family type. Demographic Research, 20, 353-376.

Thiede, B., Kim, H., & Valasik, M. (2018). The Spatial Concentration of America’s Rural Poor Population: A Post-Recession Update. Rural Sociology, 83(1), 109-144.


Race & Ethnicity

Becker, S., & Sweet, C. (2018). “What Would I Look Like?” How Exposure to Concentrated Disadvantage Shapes Hip-Hop Artists’ Connections to Community. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, DOI: 10.1177/2332649218784964.

Bratter, J. L., & O'Connell, H. A. (2017). Multiracial identities, single race history: Contemporary consequences of historical race and marriage laws for racial classification. Social Science Research, 68, 102-116.

Cope, M. R., & Schafer, M. J. (2017). Creole: a contested, polysemous term. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(15), 2653-2671.

Finley, S. C, Green, D. & Martin L. L. (2017). Lifting as We Climb:# BlackLivesMatter and the Resurrection of Black Studies in America? Western Journal of Black Studies, 41: 57-66.

Jackson, M., Green, D., Martin, L. L., & Fasching-Varner, K. J. (2016). Band-Aids Don’t Fix Bullet Holes. A Response to “We Were There Too: Learning from Black Male Teachers in Mississippi about Successful Teaching of Black Students”. Democracy and Education, 24(2), 14.

Hawdon, J., Lum, K., Swarup, S., Torres, J. A., & Eubank, S. (2017). Addressing the Race Gap in Incarceration Rates: An Agent Based Model. Corrections, 2(2), 71-90.

Martin, L. L. (2009). Black asset ownership: Does ethnicity matter? Social Science Research, 38(2), 312-323.

Martin, L. L. (2010). Strategic assimilation or creation of symbolic blackness: Middle-class blacks in suburban contexts. Journal of African American Studies, 14(2), 234-246.

Martin, L. L. (2010). Non-Married Women and Black Ethnicity: An Analysis of the Likelihood of Homeownership. Western Journal of Black Studies, 34(3), 325-336.

Martin, L. L. (2011). Debt to society: Asset poverty and prisoner reentry. The Review of Black Political Economy, 38(2), 131-143.

Martin, L. L., Fasching-Varner, K. J., & Hartlep, N. D. (2017). Pay to Play: Race and the Perils of the College Sports Industrial Complex. ABC-CLIO.

Martin, L. L., Fasching-Varner, K., Quinn, M., & Jackson, M. (2014). Racism, rodeos, and the misery industries of Louisiana. Journal of Pan African Studies, 7(6), 60-83.

Martin, L. L., Horton, H. D., & Booker, T. A. (2015). Lessons from the Black Working Class: Foreshadowing America's Economic Health: Foreshadowing America's Economic Health. ABC-CLIO.

Paul, C., & Becker, S. (2017). “People Are Enemies to What They Don’t Know” Managing Stigma and Anti-Muslim Stereotypes in a Turkish Community Center. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 46(2), 135-172.

Rackin, H. M. (2017). Comparing Veteran and Non-veteran Racial Disparities in Mid-life Health and Well-being. Population Research and Policy Review, 36(3), 331-356.

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2002). Race, Ethnicity, and Underemployment in Nonmetropolitan America: A 30‐Year Profile. Rural Sociology, 67(2), 208-233.

Shihadeh, E. S., & Ousey, G. C. (1998). Industrial restructuring and violence: The link between entry-level jobs, economic deprivation, and black and white homicide. Social Forces, 77(1), 185-206.



Baker, J. O., Stroope, S., & Walker, M. H. (2018). Secularity, religiosity, and health: Physical and mental health differences between atheists, agnostics, and nonaffiliated theists compared to religiously affiliated individuals. Social Science Research, 75, 44-57.

Blanchard, T. C. (2007). Conservative protestant congregations and racial residential segregation: Evaluating the closed community thesis in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. American Sociological Review, 72(3), 416-433.

Blanchard, T. C., Bartkowski, J. P., Matthews, T. L., & Kerley, K. R. (2008). Faith, morality and mortality: The ecological impact of religion on population health. Social Forces, 86(4), 1591-1620.

Blanchard, T., Stroope, S., & Tolbert, C. (2014). Bringing the congregations back in: religious markets, congregational density, and American religious participation. Religions, 5(3), 929-947.

Kerley, K. R., Matthews, T. L., & Blanchard, T. C. (2005). Religiosity, religious participation, and negative prison behaviors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44(4), 443-457.

Stroope, S. (2011). Education and religion: Individual, congregational, and cross-level interaction effects on biblical literalism. Social Science Research, 40(6), 1478-1493.

Stroope, S. (2011). Social networks and religion: The role of congregational social embeddedness in religious belief and practice. Sociology of Religion, 73(3), 273-298.

Stroope, S. (2011). How culture shapes community: Bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations. The Sociological Quarterly, 52(4), 568-592.

Stroope, S. (2012). Caste, class, and urbanization: The shaping of religious community in contemporary India. Social Indicators Research, 105(3), 499-518.

Stroope, S., & Baker, J. O. (2014). Structural and cultural sources of community in American congregations. Social Science Research, 45, 1-17.

Stroope, S., Draper, S., & Whitehead, A. L. (2013). Images of a loving God and sense of meaning in life. Social Indicators Research, 111(1), 25-44.

Stroope, S., & Tom, J. C. (2017). In-home firearm access among US adolescents and the role of religious subculture: results from a nationally representative study. Social Science Research, 67, 147-159.

Whitehead, A. L., & Stroope, S. (2015). Small groups, contexts, and civic engagement: A multilevel analysis of United States Congregational Life Survey data. Social Science Research, 52, 659-670.


Social Demography/Population Change

Blanchard, T. C., Cossman, J. S., & Levin, M. L. (2004). Multiple meanings of minority concentration: incorporating contextual explanations into the analysis of individual-level US black mortality outcomes. Population Research and Policy Review, 23(3), 309-326.

Hori, M., & Schafer, M. J. (2010). Social costs of displacement in Louisiana after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population and Environment, 31(1-3), 64-86.

Hori, M., Schafer, M. J., & Bowman, D. J. (2009). Displacement dynamics in southern Louisiana after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population Research and Policy Review, 28(1), 45-65.

Irwin, M., Blanchard, T., Tolbert, C., Nucci, A., & Lyson, T. (2004). Why people stay: The impact of community context on nonmigration in the USA. Population, 59(5), 567-592.

Kroeger, R. A. (2017). Union status, educational attainment, and body mass index among emerging adults. Emerging Adulthood, 5(5), 357-363.

Kroeger, R. A., & Frank, R. (2018). Race‐Ethnicity, Union Status, and Change in Body Mass Index in Young Adulthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(2), 444-462.

Myers, C. A., Slack, T., & Singelmann, J. (2008). Social vulnerability and migration in the wake of disaster: the case of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population and Environment, 29(6), 271-291.

O’Connell, H. A. (2018). Linking Racial Composition, Black–White Inequality, and Regional Difference: The Role of Migration. The Sociological Quarterly, 59(1), 128-144.

Slez, A., O’Connell, H. A., & Curtis, K. J. (2017). A note on the identification of common geographies. Sociological Methods & Research, 46(2), 288-299.


Work & Labor Markets

Blanchard, T., Irwin, M., Tolbert, C., Lyson, T., & Nucci, A. (2003). Suburban sprawl, regional diffusion, and the fate of small retailers in a large retail environment, 1977–1996. Sociological Focus, 36(4), 313-331.

Blanchard, T., & Matthews, T. L. (2006). The configuration of local economic power and civic participation in the global economy. Social Forces, 84(4), 2241-2257.

Blanchard, T. C., Tolbert, C., & Mencken, C. (2011). The health and wealth of US counties: how the small business environment impacts alternative measures of development. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 5(1), 149-162.

Laurian, L., Walker, M., & Crawford, J. (2017). Implementing environmental sustainability in local government: the impacts of framing, agency culture, and structure in US cities and counties. International Journal of Public Administration, 40(3), 270-283.

Lee, M. R., & Slack, T. (2008). Labor market conditions and violent crime across the metro–nonmetro divide. Social Science Research, 37(3), 753-768.

Parks, V., Drakeford, L., Cope, M. R., & Slack, T. (2018). Disruption of routine behaviors following the deepwater horizon oil spill. Society & Natural Resources, 31(3), 277-290.

Shrum, W. (1990). Status incongruence among boundary spanners: Structure, exchange, and conflict. American Sociological Review, 496-511.

Slack, T. (2007). The contours and correlates of informal work in rural Pennsylvania. Rural Sociology, 72(1), 69-89.

Slack, T., Cope, M. R., Jensen, L., & Tickamyer, A. R. (2017). Social embeddedness, formal labor supply, and participation in informal work. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 37(3/4), 248-264.

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2004). Employment adequacy in extractive industries: An analysis of underemployment, 1974–1998. Society and Natural Resources, 17(2), 129-146.

Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2007). Underemployment across immigrant generations. Social Science Research, 36(4), 1415-1430.

Wuthnow, R., & Shrum, W. (1983). Knowledge Workers as a “New Class” Structural and Ideological Convergence among Professional-Technical Workers and Managers. Work and Occupations, 10(4), 471-487.



Michelle Barton, Instructor
Sarah Becker, Associate Professor
Dana Berkowitz, Associate Professor
Troy C. Blanchard, Professor
Skylar C. Gremillion, Instructor
Yoshinori Kamo, Professor
Rhiannon A. Kroeger, Assistant Professor
Lori L. Martin, Professor
Heather A. O' Connell, Assistant Professor
Heather M. Rackin, Associate Professor
Mark J. Schafer, Professor
Edward S. Shihadeh, Professor
Wesley M. Shrum, Jr., Professor
Tim Slack, Professor
Kevin T. Smiley, Assistant Professor
Samuel Stroope, Associate Professor
Danielle J. Thomas, Adjunct Instructor
Jose Torres, Assistant Professor
Mark H. Walker, Assistant Professor