Frequently Asked Questions About Canine Heartworm Disease
Heartworm disease is caused by a parasitic worm that lives in the heart and lungs
of dogs. The worms cause
damage to the heart and lungs that over time can lead to illness and even death. Wild species such as foxes and coyotes are considered important carriers of the disease.
Heartworms are transmitted by mosquitoes, which is why the risk of heartworm disease
in dogs is high in
Louisiana. Even dogs that spend most of their time indoors are susceptible. Adult heartworms living in infested
dogs or wild canines produce microscopic baby worms called microfilaria. When a mosquito bites and takes a
blood meal from an infested animal, it picks up these baby worms, which change into infective larvae in the
mosquito. When the infested mosquito bites another dog, the infective larvae get into the bloodstream and
cause infestation in that dog.
Dogs with early heartworm infestation may not show any symptoms. Dogs with early symptoms may tire easily, especially during exercise, and might have a soft, deep cough. If not treated, this progresses to rapid breathing and weight loss. In severe cases dogs might have fainting spells. Sudden death is also possible.
Heartworm disease is a serious, progressive disease, and the earlier it is detected,
the better the chances of
recovery. Even if your dog appears perfectly healthy, it should be tested at least once a year. Your veterinarian
can test your dog with just a small blood sample. If your dog tests positive, then x-rays of the heart and other
blood tests may be ordered.
It is recommended that heartworm prevention be administered year-round in Louisiana
in order to prevent
heartworm disease. Several products are available, and some are also effective against intestinal worms and
fleas. Heartworm prevention products require a prescription from your veterinarian. A veterinarian-clientpatient
relationship must exist in order for you to receive either a prescription or preventative product for your
dog. This relationship is formed while the veterinarian is examining your dog and discussing heartworm disease and prevention with you.
Your dog can become infested with heartworms in a number of ways while receiving preventative
Just one skipped or delayed dose can let an infestation take hold, particularly in highly endemic areas. Endemic areas are usually hot, humid environments with lots of mosquitos, like Louisiana. If topical products are not placed directly on the skin, or if the dog spits out a pill unnoticed, then an infestation can result.
If you are sure the preventive products have been administered on time and properly, then heartworm
resistance to the preventative medication may be involved. The extent and reason for the development of
resistance is still not fully understood, and more research is needed. It appears to be a problem mostly in the
Mississippi Delta, and cases have been reported in Louisiana.
The current preventative products available are still effective more than 95 percent
of the time, as long as the
administration guidelines are followed. Even if a few resistant worms get through, most of the worms will still be killed, and the infestation will be much smaller so treatment will be more successful and have less risks.
The pharmaceutical companies that produce licensed heartworm preventatives continue to stand behind their
products. In some instances, they will cover the cost for heartworm treatment if the infection is the result of
product failure or resistance and there is evidence that the product was being administered according to the
manufacturer’s recommendations. The primary care veterinarian must provide documentation that yearly
heartworm tests were performed and enough of the product was purchased from a veterinary clinic to cover
year-round protection. The companies will NOT honor the product if purchased online because quality control
from the companies to online pharmacies cannot be documented.
Several avenues of treatment are available for dogs that test positive for heartworms.
Your veterinarian can
discuss these treatments so together you can decide what is best for your dog.
For more information, including heartworm disease in cats, visit www.heartwormsociety.org
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT CANINE HEARTWORM DISEASE
Nancy Welborn, DVM
Assistant Professor, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine
Diana Coulon, DVM
LSU AgCenter Biotechnology Laboratory
Christine B. Navarre, DVM
Extension Veterinarian, LSU AgCenter
Professor, School of Animal Sciences
June 2014 ▬ Visit our website: www.LSUAgCenter.com
William B. Richardson, LSU Vice President for Agriculture
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center
Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station
Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service
LSU College of Agriculture
The LSU AgCenter and LSU provide equal opportunities in programs and employment.