Wall Street Journal Article References 1998 CES Study
Aging Oil Rigs, Pipelines Expose Gulf to Accidents
GALLIANO, Louisiana—On June 10, 1947, Stanolind Oil & Gas Co. won an auction for the right to drill for oil on a plot seven miles off the Louisiana coast. The company built a spindly steel platform and drilled a well in shallow waters. It struck oil, and in 1950, Stanolind sold its first Louisiana sweet crude for $2.67 a barrel.
Environmental and Safety Risks of an Expanding Role for Independents on the Gulf of
Mexico OCS - Partial Abstract
Smaller independent oil producers are doing more of the exploration and production (E&P) of offshore oil and gas reserves in the Gulf of Mexico . Both industry and regulatory analysts have expressed concern that this trend will lead to more accidents. Our objective was to ascertain if there is an empirical justification for such fears . As the study progressed it also seemed appropriate to use our data to see if the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) safety and platform inspection programs have reduced the frequency or severity of accidents and spills in the Gulf.
LGS Researcher Featured in Meteor Crater News Story
Heinrich and his team discovered a circular feature while studying a topographic map of the area off of Hwy. 37, a geologic formation that would not likely have occurred naturally in an area like that of St. Helena Parish, with no volcanoes or salt domes.
Heinrich says the meteor is estimated to have measured about 100 feet in diameter. The crater is about one mile across. While no fragments of the meteor have been discovered—with as much as 90% likely to have vaporized upon impact and the remaining pieces destroyed by weathering--the iron-rich sediments comprising the rim of the crater appear to have been fractured and bleached along these fractures by super-heated water. Microscopic analyses of quartz sand from the rim of the crater found “shock marks” typical of hypervelocity impacts in the form of shocked quartz, which is created only by meteor strikes and nuclear tests, and intensely fractured quartz.
The St. Helena crater is the only known meteor crater in Louisiana and one of only 176 on earth. This type of meteor impact occurs once every 2000-6000 years.
Coarse grain of shocked quartz from the site of the Brushy Creek meteor crater in St. Helena Parish.
Exposure showing fractures that occur within sediments comprising rim of the Brushy Creek Crater near Greensburg, Louisiana. Whitish to greyish colors along fractures are possibly the result of bleaching of iron-stained sediments by superheated water along fractures. Sand from the sediments at this location consists of intensely fractured sand and innumerable grains of shocked quartz.
Excerpt from the Greensburg 7.5-minute USGS topographic map illustrating the circular rim of the Brushy Creek Crater in St. Helena Parish.
Officials warn of shortages
Former Shell Oil president warns about energy future
The Daily Reveille
Energy Summit 2010
WGMB Fox 44
Center for Energy Studies Completes Port Fourchon Emissions Research
The “Port Fourchon Ozone Day Port-Related Emissions Inventory Study,” prepared for ExxonMobil, presents initial estimates of the mobile source emissions associated with operations in and around the port. The inventory was provided to the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and the Baton Rouge Ozone Task Force to be used in regional ozone modeling to support the DEQ’s Non-attainment State Implementation Plan (SIP) for ozone.
A previous analysis of regional ozone modeling in the Baton Rouge area in 2007-2008 indicated an unaccounted for source of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions thought to be originating along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. NOx emissions are considered a precursor to ozone. Port Fourchon, which serves approximately 90% of all deepwater and 45% of shallow water rigs and platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and is the only port to serve the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), was considered a likely source of the emissions.
CES and Starcrest developed an initial inventory of NOx emissions using data representing three days in June and August 2009. Other pollutants measured include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon dioxide.
CES professional-in-residence Mike D. McDaniel and research associate Kathryn Perry performed data collection for the inventory. Emissions sources included marine vessels that docked at Port Fourchon berths or passed through the port; cranes and cargo handling equipment; heavy-duty trucks; helicopters; and offshore emissions measured by the Minerals Management Service (now the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement).
“The emissions inventory will enhance the accuracy of regional ozone modeling, which will be important for LDEQ in developing an effective ozone attainment plan,” McDaniel said.
Click here to view or download complete publication.
The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles
Thursday - November 4, 2010
Dalton J. Woods Auditorium
Energy, Coast & Environment Building
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
What You'll Learn
Environmental, energy security and economic market drivers
NGVs 101 basics review
Best NGV applications and why
Light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles available from OEMs and retrofit companies
Fuel station design, development and ownership/operations options
Federal and state tax credits, grants and other incentives
NGV fleet operator experiences and tips
Calculating fuel cost, simple payback and life-cycle savings
Next steps in implementing a successful NGV program
For registration and more information click here.
$55 fee covers course materials, continental breakfast, lunch, and refreshment break. A contribution will be made to our co-host Clean Cities Coalitions.
For more information, contact:
Greater Baton Rouge Clean Cities Coalition:
� Lauren Stuart � 225-578-9253 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Southeast Louisiana Clean Fuel Partnership:
� Rebecca Otte � 504-483-8513 or email@example.com
Louisiana Oil & Gas Association:
� Gifford Briggs � 225-388-9525 or Gifford@loga.la
Clean Vehicle Education Foundation
Greater Baton Rouge Clean Cities Coalition
LSU Center for Energy Studies
Southeast Louisiana Clean Fuel Partnership
Louisiana Department of Natural Resources
Louisiana Department of Environment Quality
Louisiana Oil & Gas Association
Louisiana Gas Association
Louisiana Geological Survey Publishes Geologic Quadrangle Map for Monroe Area
Funding for the mapping work is provided on an annual competitive basis by the U.S. Geological Survey under the National Co-operative Mapping Program. The geologic compilation for the Monroe South map was performed by LGS research associates Richard P. McCulloh and Paul V. Heinrich, with cartography by research associate Robert Paulsell and cartographic manager John Snead. The GIS compilation was done by research associate R. Hampton Peele, along with graduate students J. Ramachandran, J. George and Marcus Massom.
Created by the Louisiana Legislature in 1934, LGS is the only geologic mapping research agency in the state. Quadrangle maps published by LGS are critical for the creation of derivative maps used extensively by industry for environmental projects, site location and numerous other industrial and economic development projects.
The Monroe South map and the other quadrangle maps published by LGS are available from LGS publications: 225-578-8590 or http://www.lgs.lsu.edu/deploy/publications/publicationcatalog.php
CES Researcher Webinar
Webcast topics include
Review of regulatory requirements of decommissioning in the GOM
GOM cost estimation by decommissioning stage
Unconventional decommissioning activity
Description of risk metrics that quantify company decommissioning exposure
Summary of 2009 decommissioning activity
Discussion of NTL No.T-245g draft regulations
Registration is free.
Click here to view the webcast.
Deepwater GOM Focus of Energy Summit October 26
The Center for Energy Studies will present Energy Summit 2010, Tuesday, October 26, at the Energy, Coast & Environment Building.
The event will feature John Hofmeister, former president of Shell Oil and author of Why We Hate the Oil Companies. Mr. Hofmeister is founder and chief executive of the not-for-profit Citizens for Affordable Energy.
Deepwater exploration, production, and regulation will be the focus of the sessions,
which will cover
• The Importance of Deepwater Drilling to Supply and Energy Security
• Market Perceptions of Changes to Deepwater Drilling Regulation
• Insurance Issues
• Legal Implications of Changes in Regulation
• Public Perceptions of Spills and Offshore Activity
Register online by clicking the “Registration” tab at
Or request a faxed registration form by phoning 225-578-4400.
Continental breakfast, lunch, and reception are included.
Attorneys and engineering professionals may be eligible to receive CLE and CPD credits.
The Second Annual Louisiana Oil & Gas Symposium
The Baton Rouge Geological Society, in association with the Louisiana Geological Survey, LSU Center for Energy Studies, LSU School of the Coast & Environment, and the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, presents
The Second Annual Louisiana Oil & Gas Symposium
“The BP Gulf Oil Spill: Long-term Impacts and Strategies”
August 16-17, 2010
Dalton Woods Auditorium
Energy, Coast & Environment Building
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Featuring expert presentations on the current oil spill crisis.
Click here to view the agenda.
For details and registration information, visit the BRGS website http://www.brgs-la.org
For other questions, contact John E. Johnston III at firstname.lastname@example.org or phone 225-578-8657.
CES Report Cited in Congressman’s Request
The 2007 report, requested by the Minerals Management Service, identifies 1,227 idle oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and recommends that “structures that exist on a lease that have not produced in the last year do not serve a useful economic function.” In his letter, Grijalva requests government enforcement of existing oil and gas regulations and the dismantling of abandoned oil wells.
Current Federal regulations require that “idle iron” be removed within one year of the termination of any offshore lease. Grijavla, a member of the Committee on Natural Resources who chairs the National Parks, Forests and Public Lands Subcommittee, says that the regulation is not being enforced and recommends that idle iron parent companies hire Gulf-area workers to remove the abandoned structures. Removing the idle structures would “ensure that cleared areas are open to potential future opportunities.”
According to the August 5 edition of the New Orleans Times-Picayune, Michael Bromwich, director of the Bureau of Ocean Energy, Management, Regulation and Enforcement (formerly MMS) reports that a proposal to enforce the regulation was submitted prior to Grijalva’s letter. New measures are expected to take effect soon.
Center for Energy Studies professor Mark Kaiser served as principal author of the
Click here to view the report.
Click here to view Rep. Grijalva’s letter to Sec. Salazar.
Louisiana Geological Survey Director Appointed to DOE Project Board
The three-year $21-million project will create a national geothermal database for assessment and development of geothermal energy resources nationwide. Project participants include the 50 U.S. state geological surveys.
The interoperable, seamless, and searchable database, with state-specific information, is expected to encourage renewed industry efforts to exploit geothermal energy resources across the U.S.
The LGS will compile information on the Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal resources with particular reference to Louisiana. Data will include temperatures, geologic maps, suitable trends and sites for drilling, rock core and cuttings information, deep oil, gas, and water well information, thermal gradient maps, and more, in digital format. A geographic information system (GIS) will be developed with the associated metadata.
John sees the development of Louisiana’s geopressured-geothermal resources as having the potential to reshape the state’s energy landscape. “Louisiana has tremendous geopressured-geothermal resources,” he said. “Their development could lead to an increase in state revenues, new job creation, and a leveraging of alternate energy resources well into the future.”
Free Workshop on Clean, Renewable Fuel- Biodiesel
This event will cover the economic, environmental, production, and management aspects of biodiesel. The workshop is designed for fleet managers, mechanics, fuel distributors, business leaders, regulatory personnel, and policy makers interested in learning more about renewable fueling options.
CTEP is an initiative funded by the US Dept. of Energy and is administered in partnership with the North Carolina Solar Center, Wake Community College and local Clean Cities Coalitions. Speakers will come from Wake Technical Community College, the Renewable Energy Group, and the Greater Baton Rouge Clean Cities Coalition.
For more information and to register, contact Lauren Stuart at email@example.com or (225)578-9253
Biodiesel Fuel: Supply, Standards, and Sustainability
Location & Date
Rotunda Conference Room (Rm. 1019)
Energy, Coast \& Environment Building
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
July 15, 2010 from 12:30 PM - 4:30 PM
Welcome & Overview of DOE's Clean Cities Program
Lauren Stuart, Greater Baton Rouge Clean Cities Coalition
Biodiesel: What Everyone Needs to Know
Rich Cregar, Wake Tech Community College
Biodiesel: Industry Updates and Blending Economics
Rob Dascal, Renewable Energy Group
Q&A: Next Steps in Project Development
Dismukes Testifies before House Committee on Natural Resources
David Dismukes, associate executive director and professor for the Center for Energy Studies, testified June 30 at a congressional hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Natural Resources. The hearing was held to discuss proposed amendments to H.R. 3534, the “Consolidated Land, Energy, and Aquatic Resources (CLEAR) Act of 2009.” The CLEAR Act, sponsored by Rep. Nick Rahall, II (D-WV.), was designed to consolidate the administration of federal energy minerals management and leasing programs into one entity, the Office of Federal Energy and Minerals Leasing of the Department of the Interior. Amendments to the CLEAR Act would to change offshore energy regulatory policies in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon incident.
Dismukes testified that the proposed changes include a number of positive provisions:
• allocation of the planning, leasing, and inspection functions of the former Minerals Management Service, or MMS, into three new bureaus, which would remove the conflicts of interest that were perceived to be inherent within the old MMS regulatory and governance structure;
• a plan for buttressing each of the new regulatory agencies’ professional staff, allowing them to recruit and retain the best available talent in the market within specialized skill areas;
• establishment of benchmarks and performance metrics to evaluate operator success at meeting environmental and safety standards.
Dismukes warned that, in developing these provisions, Congress could be missing a unique opportunity to create a performance-based regulatory structure that would establish a symmetrical system of penalties and rewards. Such a reward system could lead to both improved offshore environmental and safety concerns and private sector research in technologies that could lead to profitable and environmentally positive outcomes.
Provisions Dismukes identified as having potential negative impacts for Louisiana
• removal of the offshore Gulf of Mexico, GOM, deep gas drilling and deepwater drilling incentives, which would result in job losses for a large number of oil and gas employees. Currently, more than 250,000 people are directly employed in oil and gas related activities along the GOM states, more than 100,000 of whom live and work along the coastal parishes and counties of the Gulf.
• failure to address a long-standing inequity in the mineral revenue process. Despite the contributions of Louisiana and other GOM states to U.S. energy production, transportation, and refining, these states have received few to no bonuses, rentals, or royalties created by these efforts, which take place near our shorelines. Instead of remedying this inequity, the proposed bill would allocate 10 percent of the annual federal mineral revenue from offshore production into a number of competitive grant programs that would be available to all coastal states regardless of their historic or current energy production contributions.
Dismukes recommended including revenue sharing provisions for the states that are actively supporting offshore energy production activities, both fossil fuel or renewable based.
Download Dismukes’ written comments at http://resourcescommittee.house.gov/images/Documents/20100630/testimony_dismukes.pdf
To view the hearing in its entirety, visit http://resources.edgeboss.net/wmedia/resources/10_06_30_full.wvx
CES Research Note By Professor O. Iledare
Click here to view the research note.
Implications of the BP Macondo Catastrophe on Deepwater Exploration and Production Prospectivity in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Region: A Perspective
Dismukes, Iledare Quoted in Fortune Article
CES professors Wumi Iledare and David Dismukes were quoted in Fortune's June 24 article on oil and gas industry regulation and economic impact.
The future of oil is the future of the gulf
Dismukes Contributes to CNNMoney.com Article on Drilling Moratorium
In a June 24 CNNMoney.com article on jobs at risk due to the ban on drilling, CES associate executive director David Dismukes estimates that 25,000 jobs could be at risk should the drilling ban remain in place.
Read the article here:
Drilling ban: The jobs at stake
CES Releases Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Overview of States’ Climate Action Measures
The overarching purpose of the inventory is to help prepare Louisiana for the possible federal regulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) and to assure that the state will be prepared to respond intelligently to any such regulation in a manner that would mitigate potential adverse impacts on the state’s economy and that would recognize any potential economic development opportunities that might be presented.
“The inventory was a much-needed tool for the state to have in preparation for potential greenhouse gas legislation,” said McDaniel. “The report is timely and is as thorough as any I’ve seen for other states.”
The inventory (Task 1 of the project) cites emissions data for the year 2005 to match that of proposed U.S. climate legislation, which uses that year as the base year against which emission reductions would be compared. According to the inventory, Louisiana greenhouse gas emissions for 2005 totaled 228 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. Eighty-four percent of GHG emissions were made up of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, placing Louisiana eleventh among all states in total GHG emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Louisiana’s total GHG emissions were comparable to other Gulf Coast states such as Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.
The inventory shows that CO2 (CO2 equivalent basis) represented 86 percent of Louisiana’s GHG emissions, followed by methane at 8 percent, nitrous oxide at 3 percent, and hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride at a combined 3 percent.
A comparison of Louisiana GHG emissions to total U.S. emissions shows that U.S. emissions have grown by about 18 percent from 1990 to 2005, while Louisiana emissions have decreased slightly. Comparing Louisiana GHG emissions with state population and gross state product shows Louisiana GHG emissions have fallen even as population and gross state product have grown. Additionally, Louisiana’s vehicle miles traveled and gasoline use have increased by about 20 percent and 30 percent, respectively, from 1990 to 2005, while GHG emissions have remained relatively flat.
Projections of total GHG emissions, and each of the major sectors’ emissions (e.g. industrial, transportation, electric power, residential, commercial) over the period 2005 – 2020 show a continuation of the relatively flat GHG emission trends seen over the preceding 15-year period (1990 – 2005).
Louisiana Greenhouse Gas Inventory Project Final Report
Louisiana Greenhouse Gas Inventory Project: Task 2 Report: Overview of States’ climate Action and/or Alternative Energy Policy Measures
Dismukes Quoted in Christian Science Monitor Oil Spill Article
In the May 19 online edition of The Christian Science Monitor, David Dismukes, associate executive director of the Center for Energy Studies, is quoted in a story about the possibility of BP continuing to develop the Macondo oil field. Dismukes states that BP would not likely walk away from the investment.
Read the article
Gulf oil spill: What if BP taps leaking Macondo well again?
Center for Energy Studies hosts Entergy Louisiana’s Hurricane Preparedness Event
“Storm Ready 2010” featured:
• A mini-staging area to show how restoration workers from around the country are housed and fed.
• A safety demonstration to show what happens when everyday objects come into contact with an energized power line.
• A hands-on 3D model to show how power is restored from the power plant to customers’ homes after a storm.
• An exhibit showing Entergy’s Storm Center website, including the View Outages feature. The exhibit also featured Entergy’s outage texting service, which can text information to a cell phone, and My Account Online, the companies’ online account management service.
“Preparing for hurricane season or major storms is an ongoing process for Entergy,” said Renae Conley, president and chief executive officer of Entergy Louisiana and Entergy Gulf States Louisiana. “Entergy’s employees are among the nation’s best at restoring power after hurricanes or other major weather events. Our employees know that being storm-ready is key to a safe and quick response for our customers.”
To prepare for the 2010 hurricane season, the utility companies have:
• Enhanced storm-restoration models to provide quicker assessments and restoration times.
• Are on track to complete more than 3,500 miles of vegetation management before June 1. Approximately 5,800 miles of vegetation management will be completed this year.
• Used infrared to inspect major lines in order to detect potential problems before they occur. An emphasis was placed on lines serving hospitals and major response facilities.
• Conducted proactive inspections of primary lines to identify potential problems and perform preventative maintenance.
• Installed “switching” devices in strategic areas. These devices can reroute power flow, helping to reduce outage length for customers.
• Installed a new technology called a “fault location tool” on more than 80 major feeder lines that can help pinpoint damage locations for faster restoration. The device sends a message to Entergy’s Distribution Operations Center, notifying the company of potential issues (such as a tree limb on a power line). This allows crews to be dispatched directly to the damaged area for faster restoration.
A featured speaker at Monday’s event was Barry Keim, the Louisiana state climatologist
and professor in the LSU Department of Geography and Anthropology. Keim discussed
projections of how the 2010 hurricane season might impact Louisiana. Joseph Suhayda
of LSU’s Hurricane Center spoke on how the state prepares for hurricane season and
the role the Hurricane Center plays.
At the conference, Renae Conley reviewed how the companies prepare for and respond to storms and emphasized the importance of customer and employee safety. Randy Helmick, vice president of energy delivery and Entergy’s storm incident commander, gave an overview of how Entergy coordinates efforts to restore power and how the utilities recruit, house and coordinate the work of tens of thousands of restoration workers who assist Entergy after major storms.
Dismukes Quoted in Oil Expansion News Story
David Dismukes, associate executive director for the LSU Center for Energy Studies, was quoted in a recent McClatchy News article on President Obama’s announced expansion of oil and gas exploration off U.S. coasts. In the article, Dismukes states that the opening of the eastern Gulf of Mexico, approximately 125 miles off Florida's western coastline, is most appealing to oil and gas producers because of its proximity to existing infrastructure.
In terms of the region’s potential impact on overall U.S. oil and gas production, Dismukes said that industry estimates suggest there is at least 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in the eastern gulf, slightly more than the U.S. annual consumption of 22 trillion cubic feet. Estimated recoverable oil in the region is four billion barrels, less than one-tenth of the 50 billion barrels believed to be available in the gulf, Dismukes said.
For the full McClatchy News article on the easing of the offshore drilling ban, visit http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2010/03/31/91421/environmentalists-scoff-gop-shrugs.html
Center for Energy Studies Project Wins U.S. Department of the Interior Award
The multi-year project was funded by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which manages oil and gas resources on the Outer Continental shelf under federal jurisdiction. It documented the development of the offshore oil and gas industry and its effects on the people, environment, and economy of the coastal communities along the Gulf of Mexico. A substantial portion of the effort was devoted to collecting oral and life histories from people who participated in or were affected by the development of the offshore oil and gas industry in Southern Louisiana.
The project team included Allan G. Pulsipher, executive director for the Center for Energy Studies; Harry H. Luton, MMS Gulf of Mexico OCS Region; Diane Austin and Thomas McGuire, University of Arizona, Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology; and Joseph Pratt and Tyler Priest, University of Houston, Departments of History and Business.
Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar will present the award to members of the project team later this year.
The project report is available in PDF format from the MMS, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region:
CES Hosts Greater Baton Rouge Clean Cities Coalition with DNR, DOE
GBRCCC is one of around 90 similar organizations located throughout the U.S. that focus primarily on promotion of alternate fuels and alternate fuel vehicles. CES professional-in-residence Mike McDaniel is president of the board for GBRCCC, and research associate Lauren Stuart serves as coordinator for the Clean Cities organization.
GBRCCC attempts to mobilize local stakeholders in government and industry to collaborate on public policy issues, develop joint projects, and promote use of alternative fuels in their communities. Visit www.GBRCCC.org for information on the organization’s outreach activities and training programs, and opportunities to participate in the Clean Cities effort.
The Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS) has received a grant for $141,983 in funding from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for surface geologic mapping in Louisiana for fiscal year 2010 as part of the STATEMAP component of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. Originally begun in the early 1990s, STATEMAP projects are conducted in annual cooperative agreements with the USGS.
Through STATEMAP, the LGS plans to map the surface geology of the entire state at a scale of 1:100,000, which allows for abundant detail while covering relatively large areas. A current STATEMAP project involves mapping the surface geology of a substantial portion of the Mississippi River delta plain in southeastern Louisiana, an area that experienced some of the most significant land loss in the Louisiana Coastal Zone as a direct result of the last four hurricane strikes. Such detailed geologic maps aid in planning for hurricane protection because they depict aspects of landforms, such as their relative elevations, composition, and texture, which correlate with engineering properties.
Past STATEMAP-supported mapping projects have led to the discovery of previously unknown features of substantial geologic importance as well as refinements of previous mapping. The most noteworthy discovery is an anomalous structure in the northern Florida parishes now understood to be Louisiana’s only known impact crater.
Surface geology compilations, upon delivery to the USGS at the end of each STATEMAP project, are open-filed at LGS where copies may be purchased. Links to 1:100,000- and 1:24,000-scale open-file maps from the main publications catalog may be found at the LGS website www.lgs.lsu.edu. These preliminary drafts are available for reference by members of the public, and to aid in applied research by consultants and other investigators in geotechnical, geoarchaeological, and other earth-science subdisciplines. Each year the LGS selects one or more 30 x 60 minute geologic quadrangles, compiled in house or with STATEMAP support, for cartographic production to be printed as a lithograph.
Investigators for this mapping project are Louisiana Geological Survey research associates Rick McCulloh, Paul Heinrich, John Snead, Marty Horn, and Hampton Peele.